Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Art - Research Paper Example Some of the objects are unidentifiable and there is little color. In this painting, color is minimal, which is different from many of Picassos other works. The main coloring is black, white and greyscale, with some green and a burnt reddish-brown color. The use of minimal color makes the one area that is in green stand out which says the paintings name, Ma Jolie. This brings emphasis and attention to the artwork. Black and white is found throughout the entire canvas with just touches of the color which indicates that the artist may have only wanted to emphasize certain areas of the artwork while others blended in and surrounded it. What I see is a conglomeration of objects scattered across a canvas. It is difficult to determine what all objects are contained in this scattering of images as they are all somewhat unidentifiable. One object looks like a column, one looks like an old-time prescription bottle, one looks like it could be a flask or maybe even a camera. One object that is brown could be a flute of some sort as it has multiple black holes that look like an instrument. It also looks like a mound of papers underneath or even on a place mat. As I previously stated, it looks like a still life in a way but in a way that is not realistic but instead more modernized and abstract in nature. I think what the artist is trying to say in this art work is simply describing things around him during the time frame in which this was painted. I think that it is none other than a grouping on a table of things that are of interest to him or describe his era. That is what I think the collection of objects are is just that: a few objects that perhaps inspired him. I think his lack of color exemplifies that he only wants certain things to stand out such as what appears to be a paper or program that says Ma Jolie. The black and white and large amount of white space helps to create that emphasis. Picasso also uses a lot of basic lines within the painting
Monday, February 3, 2020
The differences in the use of language between old and young generation in Saudi Arabia - Term Paper Example From this research, it is evident that different factors contribute to the difference in the language used by individuals belonging to the young and the old generation. Some of the factors that will be examined include; technology, stereotypes, and the generation gap (Bassiouney, 2009).Ã Literature review According to Calvert (2002) the difference in language used between the young and the old generation in Saudi Arabia has led to difficulties in communication. He reveals that the difference in language used by persons belonging to these two generations is as a result of stereotypes. Some of these stereotypes he depicts are as a result of the taboos the people of the old generation were exposed to. The participants who were interviewed in this research revealed that individuals belonging to the old generation were more formal in their communication style than the young. An examination of the stereotypes as a factor contributing to the difference in the language between the young a nd the old in Saudi revealed that, the differences in communication were, as a result of the difference in the expectations between these two groups. For example, the participants who were interviewed in this research showed that they experienced difficulties in communicating with persons of the old generation. This is because they were a bit slow in learning the other languages they used to communicate. Calvert (2002) also reveals that the variances in the use of linguistics between the young and the old in Saudi are because individuals belonging to the young generation incorporated some modern aspects in their language. He illustrates that this is because the young people think this would make communication between them appealing. However, he also illustrates that the old tend not to be comfortable when they incorporate such features in their communication. This is because they normally have the stereotype that persons belonging to the young generation tend to be rude when they in corporate some of the features in their communication (Calvert, 2002). Crystal (2001) illustrates that technology plays a role in the difference in the language used between the young and the old in Saudi. This is because an examination of the history of the old generation reveals that the old people did not incorporate a lot of technology in their communication. He, therefore, argues that the introduction of technology has greatly influenced the use of language among persons belonging to the young generation. The responses from the questionnaires also revealed that the introduction of the internet immensely influenced their communication styles, hence affecting their use of language. The participants claimed that the difficulty experienced by the old in adapting to the changing technology, was a factor that contributed to a difference in language use between the young
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Discrimination Of Sexual Minorities In The Workplace Qualified, hardworking Americans are denied job opportunities, fired or otherwise discriminated against just because they are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) (Human Right Campaign). Even with the passing and enforcement of employment anti-discrimination laws, statistics show that persons with minority status such as people of color, persons with disabilities and women continue to experience discrimination in the workplace, particularly sexual minorities LGBT persons (Niles Harris-Bowlsbey, 2005). LGBT individuals who are also ethnic minorities are at an even greater disadvantage, with African American transgender people faring the worst (Grant, Mottet, Tanis, Harrison, Keisling, 2001). To date, no federal law exists which consistently protects LGBT individuals from discriminatory practices in the workplace. It is still legal in 29 states to discriminate against employees and job applicants based on their sexual orientation, and legal in 38 states to discriminate based on gender identity (Human Rights Campaign). Within the state of Florida, there are no provisions in place which formally address discrimination based on gender identity; however a Florida court ruled that a person with Gender Identity Disorder (gender dysphoria) is within the disability coverage under the Florida Human Rights Act, as well as sections of the act that proscribe discrimination based on perceived disability. There is no state-wide non-discrimination law that protects individuals based on sexual orientation (Human Rights Campaign). Vocational psychology researchers, practitioners, and LGBT advocates have made significant attempts to call attention to the vocational concerns and needs of both ethnic and sexual minority groups. Over the past few decades, work discrimination has become a topic of interest in the fast growing literature regarding the vocational issues and challenges of LGBT persons (Chung, 2001; Gedro, 2009; Loo Rocco, 2009; ONeil, McWhirter, Cerezo, 2008). Work Discrimination Chung (2001) defined work discrimination as, unfair and negative treatment of workers or job applicants based on personal attributes that are irrelevant to job performance (Chung, 2001,p. 34) and proposed a conceptual framework that describes work discrimination along three dimensions: a) formal versus informal, b) perceived versus real, and c) potential versus encountered. Formal discrimination refers to institutional policies or decisions that influence ones employment status, job assignment, and compensation. Informal discrimination refers to workplace behaviors or environments that are unwelcoming. Perceived discrimination refers to acts perceived to be discriminatory; whereas, real discrimination is based in actuality/reality. Potential discrimination refers to discrimination that could occur if a persons LGBT identity is either revealed or assumed. Encountered discrimination refers to discriminatory acts one experiences. Findings from Research on Work Discrimination against LGBT persons Following is a brief overview of some of the recent research findings on work discrimination of LGBT individuals. In their report entitled Bias in the Workplace, Badgett, Lau, Sears, and Ho (2007) summarized research findings about employment discrimination of LGBT persons from four different kinds of studies throughout the United States. Surveys of LGBT persons experiences with workplace discrimination (self-reports and co-worker perceptions), revealed that 16% to 68% of LGB persons reported experiencing employment discrimination, with 57% of transgender persons reporting the same. A significant number of heterosexual co-workers also reported witnessing sexual orientation discrimination in the work place against their LGBT peers. Of note, 12% to 13% of respondents in specific occupations (e.g., the legal profession) reported witnessing anti-gay discrimination in employment. An analysis of employment discrimination complaints filed with governmental agencies in states where discrimin ation based on sexual orientation is prohibited, findings revealed that LGB persons filed complaints at rates similar to women and racial minorities (e.g., people of color). An analysis of wage differentials between LGBT and heterosexual workers revealed that gay men earn 10% to 32% less than heterosexual men with similar qualifications and that transgender persons reported higher rates of unemployment (6% to 60% were unemployed) with incredibly small earnings (22% 64% of the employed earned less than $25,000 per year). Finally, findings from controlled experiments where researchers compare treatment of LGBT people and treatment of heterosexuals by presenting hypothetical scenarios in which research participants interact with the actual or hypothetical people who are coded as gay or straight also revealed significant discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in the workplace. According to the American Psychological Association (2011), those who self-identify as LGBT are particularly vulnerable to being socioeconomically disadvantaged; this is important as socioeconomic status is inextricably linked to LGBT persons rights and overall well-being. Although LGBT persons tend to be more educated in comparison to the general population, research suggests that they make significantly less money than their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. In 2009, the National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force published the preliminary findings of their National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS). A staggering 97% of survey participants reported experiencing mistreatment, harassment, or discrimination in some form on their jobs, which included privacy invasion (48% said supervisors/coworkers shared information about me inappropriately and 41% said I was asked questions about my transgender and surgical status), verbal abuse (48% said I was referred to be the wrong pronoun, repeatedly and on purpose), and physical or sexual assault (7% said I was a victim of sexual assault at work and 6% said I was a victim of sexual assault at work). Survey respondents also reported experiencing unemployment at twice the rate of the population, with 47% having experienced an adverse job outcome being fired, not hired or denied a promotion at some point in their careers due to their gender identity. Simi lar findings were reported in the NTDS official report, Injustice at Every Turn. Other significant findings were that 57% of participants reported trying to avoid discrimination by keeping their gender or gender transition a secret, and 71% by delaying the transition. Sixteen percent reported that they had to resort to work in the underground economy to earn income (e.g., prostitution or selling drugs). Unemployed respondents reported experiencing devastating outcomes, including double the homelessness, 85% more incarceration, and increased negative health outcomes, including twice the rate of HIV infection and nearly twice the rate of current drug use to self-medicate/cope in comparison to their employed LGBT counterparts (Ramos, Badgett, Sears, 2011). Frye (2001) argued that transgender persons are regular targets of workplace discrimination even more systematically than their LGB counterparts. In an attempt to ensure professional survival and avoid discrimination, many LGB employees choose not to come out at work; however because transgender persons may possess physical and behavioral characteristics that clearly identify them as transgendered at some point in their lives (mainly during gender transition), they are more susceptible to having their sexual minority status revealed against their will (being outed). More so than LGB individuals, transgender persons are frequently targets of hate crimes because of their visibility (Frye, 2001). How/ Why Work Discrimination is related or important to career counseling. In the United States, a dominant career-related belief is that the individual controls his or her own career destiny (Niles Harris-Bowlsbey, 2005, p. 1); however, individual control is always exercised within a context that varies based on the degree to which it supports ones career goals. In the case of LGBT persons, factors such as heterosexism, socioeconomic status, and racism may restrict access to certain occupational opportunities. Work discrimination in any form can have a profound effect on ones career path and development (Neary, 2010). LGBT people face a complex set of choices that are unique to them because of their sexual minority status (Gedro, 2009, p. 54). Many of them have to confront exclusion from certain types of jobs, such as elementary school teachers and child care workers; physical assault, verbal harassment and abuse, destruction of property, ridicule, trans-phobic jokes, unfair work schedules, workplace sabotage, and restriction to their careers (Kirk Belov ics, 2008, p.32 as cited in Neary, 2010). In the case of transgender individuals, concerns about personal safety while at work preclude the focus on career interests (Neary, 2010). Because of the large amount of energy it requires to integrate a positive gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender identity, as well as cope with discrimination (within and outside of the workplace), career development for such persons to be postponed, hindered, or misdirected (Alderson, 2003 as cited in Gedro, 2009, p.56; Haley, 2004). Pepper and Lorah (2008) identified 3 major problems related to the job search process an integral part of career development which poses several challenges for transgender persons: 1) potential loss of work history, 2) navigating the job interview process (many struggle with confidence and self-esteem issues), and 3) if an employer asks about work experience under another name. Although slightly different, such challenges may be generalized to LGB job-applicants as well. Helping LGBT clients prepare for these problems is essential in assisting them in their career choice and job search efforts (Neary, 2010). Work discrimination also has a significant impact on LGBT persons mental state, with the most common psychological issues include increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression, lack of self-confidence, drug and alcohol dependency (Neary, 2010), and attempted suicide (Grant et. al., 2011). Implications Suggested Interventions for Career Counselors Like all other clients, the LGBT client may require help with career planning, self-assessment, career exploration, career or job transitions, job search strategies etcetera (Neary, 2010; ONeil et. al., 2008). Career counselors working with sexual minorities need to create a LGBT-positive/affirming counseling environment, in which clients are free to explore their personal needs, interests and values in a safe place. Such an environment includes tangible and process-related forms of support and affirmation (e.g., displaying quarterly newsletters from the America Psychological Associations Division 44 and other reading materials or paying careful attention to unique aspects of assessment interpretation) for LGBT clients. Intake forms should encourage them to note their gender presentation, and gender-neutral washrooms should be made available (ONeil et. al., 2008). Counselors and other helping professionals involved in the career development process of LGBT individuals should ensure that they develop relevant multicultural knowledge, skills and awareness for conducting culturally appropriate career discussions, realizing that more traditional approaches will likely be ineffective with this particular population. (Niles Harris-Bowlsbey, 2001). When a LGBT client presents for career counseling, counselors should assess whether they are competent to provide the services requested (ONeil, et. al., 2008). It is also imperative that career counselors assess their personal biases, stereotypes, and assumptions about the LGBT client presenting for counseling. A client-centered approach is recommended given that the issue of trust building is critical with the LGBT population. From a narrative perspective, adopting a stance of informed not knowing will allow the LGBT client the best chance to share their story about their career and life in their own wo rds. Following, the counselor and client collaborate to deconstruct the cultural narratives of gender and heterosexism that promote negative messages and replace them with a more accurate and affirming narrative (Neary, 2010). In the case of personal dislike to LGBT individuals, ONeil et. al., (2008) advised that counselors refer the client to another professional, receive continuing education and supervision, and engage in personal exploration of the topic as a means to prepare for future clients with similar concerns. The career counselors ability to provide effective services to their LGBT clients will be improved by staying current with the relevant literature (ONeil et. al., 2008). Career counselors are encouraged to help improve cultural sensitivity where their clients are concerned; this can be achieved by using appropriate names, pronouns and other terminology preferred by their LGBT clients to help validate their identity. Career counselors should also make it a point to educate themselves about the different legal issues experienced by their clients and investigate any written workplace policies that may hold relevance to LGBT individuals, such as the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ONeil et. al., 2008; Human Rights Campaign). Further, career counselors should identify and attend to all of the salient aspects of the clients identity, as clients may identify themselves with an array of sociocultural backgrounds. This is especially important for transgender clients who not only suffer discrimination in the workplace, but in almost every aspect of their lives: education, housing, public accommodations, receiving update identification documents, and health care (Ramos, Badgett, Sears, 2011). Pope (1995) as cited in Gedro (2009) outlined four useful interventions for career counselors working in their work with sexual minorities. Pope suggests a discussion about discrimination interventions (exploring the nature and extent of discrimination and any resources available to the client should he or she chose to change their job or career), dual-career couples (e.g., Do you openly reveal the relationship at work?), overcoming internalized transphobia or homophobia with the client (many sexual minority clients possess an intense self-hatred and loathing), as well as supporting LGBT role models (particularly those who do not work in safe occupation). Finally, career counselors are also strongly encouraged to serve as advocates for their LGBT clients. One author noted that a weakness in the field is the reluctance or inability to see career counselors as change agents who can help not only individuals to change but systems to change as well (Hanson, 2003 as cited in ONeil, 2008, p. 299). Neary (2010) cited Muniz and Thomas (2006) five strategies in organization settings that career counselors can use to help cultivate an affirmative LGBT work environment. They include: 1) setting up the context advocating in the workplace for anti-discrimination and harassment policies, 2) preparing for resistance taking steps to make the concerns and needs of the LGBT population more visible, 3) leadership commitment gaining commitment and support from the leadership/management of organization, 4) becoming familiar with or launching affinity and/or resource groups for LGBT persons, and 5) continued learning additional diversity training (Near y, 2010). The Human Rights Campaign Foundation provides a 5-step checklist for advocating for the rights of transgender persons, and the NCTEs list of 52 Things You Can Do for Transgender Equity, is also a useful guide for initiating social advocacy (ONeil, et. al., 2008).
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The two writers Isabel Allende and Guy de Maupassant both use the theme of revenge in many ways in their short stories Ã¢â¬ËThe school teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s guestÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËVendettaÃ¢â¬â¢. VendettaÃ¢â¬â¢s key theme appears to be revenge because of the title, the word Vendetta meaning Ã¢â¬ËA bitter, destructive feud.Ã¢â¬â¢ Where as Ã¢â¬Å"The school teachers guestÃ¢â¬ seems, from its title, to be a pleasant story about a school teachers guest. The opening paragraphs of the stories are also different. The school teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s guest introduces the murder straight away by the schoolteacher Ines entering the pearl of the Orient and announcing to the character Turk that she had just cut off the head of one of her guests, Allende then goes back to explain why this happened. This is different in Vendetta as the murder does not happen until the very end and it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the middle of the story that we learn who the vendetta is for. The revenge in Vendetta is also build up in a different way by setting a depressing scene and working gradually into the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s murder and the widowÃ¢â¬â¢s grieving. It also builds up the widow training the dog SÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½millante to kill. This is different in the school teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s guest, as the murder is announced at the beginning, there is no build up and the killing of the man is more of an act of fate. The reason for the act of revenge is also described more thoroughly in the school teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s guest. The accidental murder of InesÃ¢â¬â¢s son is told in lines 24-35 in great detail using phrases such as Ã¢â¬Ëdrilling a black hole in the middle of his forehead through which his life rapidly escapedÃ¢â¬â¢. In Vendetta, Maupassant simply states Ã¢â¬Ëone evening, Antoine Saverini was treacherously stabbed in a quarrel by Nicolas Ravolati, who escaped that same night to Sardinia.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is a much shorted but not as thorough way to describe the main rea son for the climax of the story. One thing similar between the two stories is the scene in the aftermath of the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s murder being described in great detail, although in the school teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s guest the act of revenge is almost committed by the towns people rather than swore by the victims mother. The aftermath in the school teachers guest is also more of a community parade, throwing mangoes and marching rather than weeping by the dead boys bedside as the widow does in Vendetta. We are also told more about the murder despite not knowing his name. We know that he is a truck driver and an outsider of Agua Santa. In Vendetta we know nothing of Nicolas Ravolati but his name which does not give him much character to hold a vendetta against. Both Maupassant and Allende use revenge in different ways in their short stories but Allende describes the characters and the reasons for revenge more thoroughly even if she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t set the scene as well. In this way I found the school teachers guest used revenge in better and more high-quality ways.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Extracurricular activities have a positive effect and help students improve their academic performance. The positive effect that extracurricular activities have on students are improvements in behavior, better grades, and provides students with a social outlet. Students who participate in extracurricular activities have to always keep up a positive attitude and become a better student, and a better player and performer. Students who participate in extracurricular activities are better behaved. During sports they must show discipline in drills, practices, and games. They have the responsibility to perform the task the right way. Behavior in sports is important because misbehavior can lead to disqualification. People are able to make decisions on there own and control the way they behave. During sports, under supervision of coaches and parents the athlete must behave with honor. Doing so can show self-discipline and demonstrate a serious athlete or performer. During extracurricular activities students are more motivated to succeed because students want to continue to do the sport or activity they love. Students doing extracurricular activities need to keep their grades up. Students have to work really hard to maintain good grades or their coach, parent, or guardian may have to instruct them to bring their grades up or they will have to quit. When participating in extracurricular activities, school and grades are always the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s number one priority. The final effect is the social aspect. While doing a sport or activity students meet new people. While doing a sport, an athlete may meet people with a common interest. The people that the athlete or student meets during activities can become a long time friend of theirs. Extracurricular activities contribute to students working better together and teach patience in dealing with different people. Extracurricular activities play an important role in a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday life. They have positive effects on studentÃ¢â¬â¢s lives by improving behavior, grades, and provide students with a social outlet. Extracurricular activities are a part of childhood memories and help shape the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life as well as education. Both education and extracurricular activities play a huge contribution to one another.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
The idea for BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy was born in 1948 during an informal meeting at the American Psychological Association Convention in Boston, by Benjamin S Bloom and a committee of over 30 leading educators. (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill Krathwol, 1956 p. 4) Although the taxonomy is general referred to as BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy, the work is considered a group product that came form many revisions. (Bloom et al., 1956 p.9) The original work of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy (OW) came in the form of handbook, titled the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives consisted of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 7) The cognitive domain focused on sex levelÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Bloom et al., 1956 p. 5) However, the committee agreed that since educational objectives can be view in behavior form and behavior of individuals can be observed and measured, a classification could be applied. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 7) To fully understand the OW, it is important to define and clarify the term taxonomy as it is used in the handbook. The term taxonomy refers to the classification systems that have made the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives so popular in the world of education today. (Seaman, 2011 p. 30) The classification system was intended to measure the degree to which student learned and intend educational behavior. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 12) The committee likened its taxonomy system, to the classification of book in a library. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 9) The OW classifications are; 1) Knowledge 2) Comprehension 3) Application 4) Analysis 5) Synthesis and 6) Evaluation. (Bloom et al., 1956 p. 18) These six classifications comprise a tiered learning system that teachers used to push students through when implementing an instructional model based on the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in the OW. Each classification level presented a higher amount of rigor, which required students to think more cr itically. (McKay, 1956) The OW of BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s taxonomy suggested that critical thinking and higher order skills are essential to student development. Essentially, the OW was designed to provide teachers with a
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Of all the mental duties revealed about the rat during this book, the one that most interested me was direct reciprocity. This was the most intriguing information, because while generalized reciprocity would seem to be a higher functioning thought process, in reality direct reciprocity is far more complex. The animals must learn and understand reciprocal altruism. Not only are the animals required to learn that there is a causal relationship between cooperatively working together and receiving more rewards, there is an entire chain of events that must take place. In order to perform direct reciprocity a rat must be able to tell apart other rats, and keep a mental list. This list consists of all of the specific rats that have helped it inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In this instance migratory birds are able to learn a sort of mental compass. While many people would assume that this information is genetically encoded, that is impossible since celestial poles change every 27,000 years (far faster than evolution can update a bird s mental gps). Rather than have this information genetically encoded, the migratory birds are genetically prepared to learn this information. Nestlings spend a majority of their time watching the constellations, in order to map the stars. The quality and quantity of the material the baby birds must learn is fascinatingly impressive. The cherished notion on the uniqueness of human intelligence is an unfair assumption. Many people dwell upon these ideas in order to feel superiority and to justify actions. People would be far less willing to experiment on lab rats if they acknowledged the fact that they are intelligent. People typically regard animals as less intelligent than they really are because if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t then it would create a cognitive dissonance. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to probe at animals if they they believe the animals possess human-likeShow MoreRelatedAnimal Testing Is Cruel And Unusual Punishment2041 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesmean great progress in the search for new vaccines and therapies. What place should animals have in an acceptable moral system? Why should we continue sacrificing lives of animals when possible alternatives are available? Practically all the advances in medicine during the past 100 years are attributed to animal testing. Each year, scientists use animal models to develop cures and preventions for diseases prevalent worldwide. Some examples of scientific advances were possible by animal tests includeRead More Friendship, Life, and Nature: Of Mice and Men Essay examples2143 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Lennie dabbled his big paw in the waterÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Steinbeck 3). Steinbeck compares Lennie to a large animal in physical terms. LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s hand represents the paw of the large animal. 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